Temperament: what is it?
Temperament is the way children respond to the world.
You can think about your child’s temperament in terms of how much or how little they show of these qualities:
- Reactivity – this is how strongly children react to things like exciting events or not getting their own way. Reactive children tend to feel things strongly.
- Self-regulation – this is how much children can control their behaviour, including the way they show their feelings. It’s also about how much children can control their attention and how persistent they are.
- Sociability – this is how comfortable children are when they meet new people.
- Adaptability – this is how quickly children can adjust to new situations or changes in their environment.
Children are born with their own temperaments, and you’ve probably been able to describe your child’s temperament since they were a baby. For example, ‘Jade is very easygoing’ or ‘Luca likes routines’.
Differences in temperament explain why your children might be quite different from one another. For example, your children might be more or less reactive, more or less self-regulated, more or less sociable, or more or less adaptable.
Adapting your parenting for your child’s temperament
You can’t change your child’s temperament. Your child is who they are, and that’s great.
But you can nurture your child’s development by adapting your parenting to your child’s temperament. You can help your child develop the positive parts of their temperament. You can also understand the situations that your child might find hard because of their temperament, and you can help them learn how to handle these situations.
Parenting more and less reactive temperaments
If you have a very reactive child, your child is probably loud and energetic when something good happens. But your child might also be loud and dramatic when they’re unhappy about something, like not getting their own way. You might need to help your child learn how to respond more calmly – for example, by relaxing and using words for angry feelings.
Reactive children are often also very physically active and might need a lot of time outdoors. You can help your child develop by encouraging them to try new sporting activities, for example. But your child might also need help winding down, so bedtime relaxation can be a good idea.
A less reactive child is usually easy to get along with because they seem quiet and calm, but they might be less assertive. You might need to help your child learn how to stand up for themselves. For example, if you notice your child has trouble asking for a turn on the slide, you could role-play handling the situation differently.
It’s also important to make sure less reactive children aren’t left out of family discussions. For example, ‘Harper, you haven’t said much. Are you happy with that choice of movie?’
Children who are less reactive might also be less physically active. Your less active child will be happiest with plenty of opportunities to use their fine motor skills, like doing craft or drawing. But you might need to encourage physical activity. Try a trip to the park to collect leaves for a collage, for example. Or make sure you both walk to the library if you can, instead of driving.
Parenting more and less self-regulated temperaments
Children who find it easier to self-regulate are good at staying calm when they feel emotions like frustration or excitement. They can calm down faster after something exciting or upsetting, and they’re likely to be less impulsive.
A child who’s very self-regulated might also be more able to manage their attention. For example, they might be likely to keep going with something until it’s right. They might also be good at coping with setbacks and able to get through tasks like homework without much supervision. But they might be a bit of a perfectionist, so make sure they know that it’s OK to make mistakes.
If your child has difficulty regulating their attention, they’ll need a lot of encouragement to keep going at difficult tasks. These children might switch easily from one activity to another. They can also be very creative. To help your child focus, you can try rewarding your child or making things fun by using games and creative activities.
Parenting more and less sociable temperaments
If your child is very sociable, they’ll like being around other people, having playdates and doing group activities. But you don’t have to organise playdates and activities for your child all the time, because it’s also important for your child to learn to occupy themselves.
If your child isn’t very sociable, they’re probably quite good at playing by themselves and might not need much help finding something to do. But you might need to help your child with making friends. If your child isn’t comfortable in groups or at parties, for example, you could try asking just one friend for a playdate at your house or the park.
Parenting more and less adaptable temperaments
If your child is more adaptable, they can probably cope with changes easily. For example, they won’t mind new environments or situations. It’s great if you can give your adaptable child a lot of new experiences, but make sure your child still gets one-on-one time with you.
If your child isn’t very adaptable, they’ll like having a routine. Also, they might take time to warm up to changing situations and not enjoy surprises. This can make it easy for you to plan things around your child’s routine, but your child might also need help coping with changes or transitions.
Your child’s temperament might be different from yours. Some parents find that it’s easier to understand a child whose temperament is similar to theirs. For example, if you like predictability, you might find it easy to care for a baby who needs regular sleeps. But if you like being able to do things whenever you want, it might take you a while to get used to your child’s liking for routine.
How temperament can change
You might see some changes in your child’s temperament as your child becomes more mature. This happens as your child’s experiences affect the way your child behaves in different situations.
For example, a child who used to be very distracted at school might become an adult who can concentrate well in business meetings. This might be because they’ve developed strategies to manage their distraction as they’ve matured.