There are several types of cloth nappies.
Cloth or ‘terry’ squares
These cloth nappies are made of fabric that absorbs liquid – usually terry or flannelette cotton, hemp, bamboo or a blend. They fit snugly but work best with a leak-proof cover. They can be bulky. You fold or fasten these cloth nappies with pins or clips. They dry quickly. The squares fit children of all ages. These nappies are the cheapest to buy.
These cloth nappies are made of soft layers of fabric, like cotton or bamboo, which you fold over into a pad shape and put inside a fitted, leak-proof cover. You can also put them inside pocket or fitted nappies. Pre-folds aren’t bulky, but they’re less absorbent than other types of reusable nappies. They dry quickly. You might need 2-3 different sizes. Pre-folds are quite cheap.
These are also called contoured or shaped nappies. They can be made of layers of cotton, fleece, hemp or bamboo. You use them with a leak-proof cover, and they usually fasten with velcro or press studs. Some have an absorbent insert. Fitted nappies come in one-size-fits-most and different sizes. They’re easy to change. They’re slower to dry and more expensive than cloth squares and pre-folds.
These cloth nappies have a leak-proof outer shell sewn together with a soft inner layer. There are inserts in the ‘pocket’ between the shell and the inner layer to absorb liquid. Inserts can be made of different materials, which absorb different amounts of liquid. They’re easy to use and dry quickly, but you need to take out the inserts before washing and put them back in afterwards. They come in one-size-fits-most and different sizes.
These cloth nappies combine a water-resistant outside layer sewn together with an absorbent inner layer, so there’s no need for a cover or separate layers. They’re shaped and can be fastened with velcro, clips or press studs. They’re simple to use but slower to dry.
All-in-twos or ‘snap-in-ones’
These cloth nappies have a leak-proof shell and one or more absorbent ‘snap-in’ layers or ‘boosters’, which you take apart for washing. They dry faster than all-in-ones.
Deciding on cloth nappies
If you think you want to use cloth nappies, you’ll need around 20-24 nappies to start with, depending on your washing and drying routine, climate and season.
It’s a good idea to try a few different types before you buy one type in bulk. You can do this by:
- buying a single nappy in the styles you like
- buying a trial pack from a company that sells samples
- hiring a trial pack from a nappy library – this service is offered by nappy companies and some community groups and councils
- asking friends or family whether they have any nappies that you could try.
There’s currently no Australian standard for modern cloth nappies, so it’s worth checking the warranty and after-sales service before you buy. Overseas imports can vary in quality.
Cleaning cloth nappies
Here’s how to clean cloth nappies properly:
- Remove poo from nappies. It’s best to flush poo after you’ve removed it, rather than putting it in the bin.
- Rinse nappies that have had poo on them or that your baby has worn overnight. You don’t need to rinse daytime nappies that have had only wee on them.
- Store used nappies in a dry bucket or basket with holes until you can wash them. Avoid storing nappies for more than 2 days.
- Prewash nappies with good-quality detergent on a short cycle at up to 60°C. By prewashing, you ensure that the main wash uses clean water.
- Do a main wash with good-quality detergent on a long cycle at up to 60°C.
- Line-dry nappies if you can. Hang nappy covers in the shade. If you use a clothes dryer, follow the nappy manufacturer’s instructions for drying.
A good-quality detergent is one that removes stains and leaves nappies with a fresh smell or no smell at all if you’re using a fragrance-free detergent. Baby detergents don’t clean nappies properly, so it’s best to avoid them. And if you use a nappy sanitiser, follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Disposable nappies generally have a plastic outer layer, a layer of super-absorbent chemicals and an inner liner. Disposable nappies are quick and easy to use and fasten.
They come in different packet sizes and are made for a range of ages and weights.
If you’re interested in using disposable nappies, it’s a good idea to try a few different brands to see which one best suits your baby and budget.
You’ll need up to 12 nappies a day for a newborn and 6-8 nappies a day for a toddler.
Biodegradable disposable nappies
These disposable nappies have parts made from different materials, like bamboo, fabrics and paper pulp. The manufacturer’s website should say how many of these materials are biodegradable.
These nappies are supposed to decompose more quickly than ordinary disposable nappies, although how fast they decompose will depend on landfill conditions.
In general, biodegradable nappies are more expensive than regular disposables.
Comparing cost, time, convenience and performance of nappies
If you’re wondering about which type of nappy to use, you might want to think about some of the following issues.
With cloth nappies, washing and drying costs depend on:
- what type of washing machine you use
- whether you use warm, hot or cold water
- what detergent you use
- whether you use a clothes dryer.
If you buy sized reusable nappies rather than one-size-fits-most, you’ll need to buy 1-2 more sets of nappies later on. But if you can use your reusable nappies on more than one child, your cost savings will add up.
If you use disposables, you need to buy nappies regularly. To work out how much money you spend on disposables or to compare different brands, work out how many disposable nappies are in a packet and how many you use every day.
You can save money by buying disposable nappies in bulk.
Washing and drying cloth nappies takes time and effort.
But depending on how many cloth nappies you have, you might be able to wash only every second day. You can keep used cloth nappies in a dry bucket or basket with holes until you have enough for a load.
You could also consider a nappy washing service. This is a convenient and environmentally friendly option if you can get it where you live. But it will add to your costs.
Disposable nappies might be more convenient than cloth nappies, especially when you’re out.
You could consider using cloth nappies at home and disposables when you’re out.
Some types of nappies leak less or need fewer changes. For example, you’ll need to change cloth nappies more often than highly absorbent disposable nappies.
You could consider using cloth nappies during the day and disposables overnight.
Environmental costs of nappies
Both disposable and cloth nappies have an impact on the environment.
Disposable nappies create hundreds of thousands of tonnes of landfill around the world every year. And the manufacture of disposable nappies uses a lot of water and energy, which adds to their environmental impact.
You can reduce the environmental impact of disposables by flushing poo, rather than putting it in the bin.
The biggest environmental impact of cloth nappies happens during their use. You have to use detergents, water and energy for rinsing, washing and drying cloth nappies.
You can reduce the environmental impact of cloth nappies by:
- not flushing nappy liners, even if they’re advertised as flushable
- using biodegradable, phosphate-free detergents
- buying plenty of nappies so that you can wait for a full load of washing without running out of clean nappies
- hanging nappies to dry on the line, instead of using a clothes dryer
- not using fabric softener
- using a front-loading washing machine, which will use less water
- using nappies for a second child.
Health issues related to nappies
Some babies get nappy rash. The best way to avoid nappy rash is to change your baby’s nappy regularly.
Using good-quality disposable nappies might also help if your baby has nappy rash, because disposable nappies are generally better at keeping babies’ bottoms dry.