By Raising Children Network
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Concerned pregnant woman
Most women have healthy, normal pregnancies. But some women have health problems in their pregnancy and complications that might need closer checks or extra medical care.

Health problems in pregnancy: what’s normal, what’s not

Many women go through physical discomforts in pregnancy – constipation, backache, needing to urinate more often, indigestion, haemorrhoids and nose bleeds.

These pregnancy health problems are usually mild, but sometimes need medical attention. It’s always a good idea to talk about these kinds of problems with your doctor or midwife.

When to get help for health problems in pregnancy

There are some physical and emotional changes that can point to serious problems in pregnancy. If you have any of the symptoms or feelings below, call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital as soon as possible.

Your emotions
Call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital if you’re:

  • having trouble coping with your emotions or having thoughts of harming yourself or your baby
  • having serious problems in your relationship, including family violence.

Your tummy and/or ‘bump’
Call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital if you:

  • have severe discomfort, pain or cramping in your stomach
  • get a physical blow or trauma to your tummy area – for example, from a fall, car accident or family violence
  • think your baby is moving less than normal, especially later in pregnancy. Check with your midwife or doctor at your antenatal appointments about how much baby movement to expect.

Your bladder or vagina
Call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital if you:

  • are bleeding, leaking fluid or getting a lot of discharge (that is, more than normal) from your vagina
  • feel discomfort, pain, frequency or burning when you urinate.

Your head
Call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital if you:

  • are getting severe or long-lasting headaches
  • feel quite dizzy
  • have problems seeing, or have any changes to your vision, such as blurred vision.

Your legs, toes, fingers, hands and skin
Call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital if you have:

  • sudden or severe swelling in the face, hands or fingers
  • severe swelling and pain in your legs
  • severe skin itching.

Call your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital if you:

  • have persistent nausea and vomiting, and can’t eat and drink without vomiting.
  • have a fever or chills.

You might feel that something ‘just isn’t right’, even if you don’t have any of the symptoms above. If you get checked out by your health professional, you can get treatment or help as soon as possible – or be told that everything is OK.

If you can’t reach your doctor, midwife or maternity hospital by phone, go to a GP or the nearest public maternity hospital.

If you go into labour but you’re not close to your due date, or you think it’s an emergency and you’re very concerned about your health or your baby’s, you can call an ambulance by phoning 000. If you don’t have ambulance membership, you’ll be charged for the trip.

If you’re getting closer to your due date, you can read about signs that labour might start soon in our article on 33 weeks pregnant.

Past health problems in pregnancy

You might be more likely to develop a health problem in pregnancy if you:

  • had a health problem or complication with a previous pregnancy
  • already have a medical condition
  • have a family history of a condition that might cause problems in pregnancy.

If this sounds like you, tell your doctor or midwife at your early antenatal appointments. Your doctor or midwife will keep a closer eye on you and your baby, and offer treatment and support during your pregnancy if you need it.

Reducing the risk of health problems in pregnancy

There’s no way to stop some pregnancy health problems and complications from happening.

But you can reduce your chance of having pregnancy health complications – or stop them from getting worse – by going to your antenatal appointments and telling your doctor or midwife if you have any of the symptoms listed above.

The earlier you tell your health professional about symptoms, the better.

If you do have a pregnancy health problem, your midwife or doctor can check on you and/or give you options for treatment.

Healthy pregnancy lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the chance of you having some health problems in pregnancy.

Food and exercise
Healthy eating in pregnancy can improve your health and wellbeing. It’s also important for your baby’s growth and development.

Regular, gentle to moderate physical activity in pregnancy can improve your mood, fitness and sleep, boost energy and ease back pain. You could try walking or swimming. But check with your doctor or midwife about your plans for exercise and physical activity in pregnancy.

Exercising your pelvic floor and abdominal muscles will help to prevent urinary problems like incontinence later in pregnancy or after birth.

Smoking, alcohol and other drugs and medications
Don’t smoke in pregnancy. Stay away from other people when they smoke so you don’t breathe their second-hand smoke. If you smoke, get help and support to stop by calling Quitline on 137 848.

Don’t drink alcohol in pregnancy. It isn’t known if there are safe levels of alcohol for pregnant women, so not drinking any alcohol is the safest option. Alcohol crosses the placenta and can lead to serious health problems in babies.

Check with your doctor or midwife that any medicines you’re taking are safe for your baby. This includes prescribed medicines, vitamin supplements and medicines from chemists and supermarkets.

Don’t use non-prescribed medicines or drugs. If you do use these, tell your doctor or midwife early in pregnancy and ask for help to quit.

Your emotional health
Your emotional health is just as important as your physical health. If you’re worried about becoming a parent or having problems in your relationship, including family violence, it’s a good idea for you to talk about this at your antenatal appointments.

Your health professional can let you know where to get support if you need it.

Daily health and hygiene
Looking after your teeth might reduce the risk of your baby having lower birth weight, being born prematurely and having early childhood dental decay.

You can look after your teeth by drinking tap water every day, brushing your teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day using a soft toothbrush, and using dental floss every day.

Health professionals recommend that you get the influenza vaccine if you’re pregnant during winter. It can be given at any stage of pregnancy.

Wear a seatbelt in the car. The seat belt should be positioned with one strap ‘above your bump’ and the other ‘below your bump’.

Washing your hands regularly, especially after going to the toilet and before preparing food, is part of general good hygiene. It can help prevent you from catching or spreading illness and infection. 
  • Last updated or reviewed 12-08-2013
  • Acknowledgements This content has been developed in collaboration with Yasna Blandin de Chalain, maternal and child health nurse, counsellor; Professor Hannah Dahlen, midwife, midwifery scholar, University of Western Sydney; Dr Bernadette White, obstetrician, Mercy Health, Melbourne; and Professor Caroline Homer, Director, Centre for Midwifery, Child and Family Health, University of Technology Sydney.