Your preschooler has so much to tell you and so many words to use! Language development in children aged between three and four years includes a continually growing vocabulary. Your child will also show that he understands the basic rules of grammar. And you’ll be able to understand almost all of what your child says to you.
Vocabulary and language development at 4-5 years
At this age, your child will begin to learn and use more:
- connecting words – for example, ‘when’, ‘but’
- words that explain complicated emotions – for example, ‘confused’,
- words that explain things going on in her brain – for example, ‘don’t know’,
- words that explain where things are – for example, ‘between’, ‘above’, ‘below’, ‘top’.
Your child is also learning more and more adjectives that let him explain things better – for example, ‘empty’, ‘funny’.
In general, preschoolers understand many more words than they can use.
Sentences and grammar in language development
As part of her language development at this age, your child will speak in increasingly complex sentences by joining small
sentences together. She’ll also use sentences in different ways.
By five years, your child will begin to use many different sentence types. For
example, he’ll be able to say both ‘The dog was chasing the cat’ and
‘The cat was chased by the dog’ to mean the same thing. Also at this age, your
child will be able to use long sentences of up to nine words.
By five, your child will know all of the different word endings. For example, your child will start adding ‘er’ to the end of words, like ‘big’ to make ‘bigger’. She might still make some mistakes though – for example, ‘they wants to go’.
Your child will develop the ability to talk about things that have happened
in the past or will happen in the future, rather than just things that are happening right now.
He’ll get better at using past tense, irregular plurals – for example, ‘mice’ – and pronouns – for example, ‘him’, ‘his’, ‘her’.
Understanding and language development
By five, your child will understand and use words that explain
when things happen, like ‘before’, ‘after’ and ‘next week’. She might
still have trouble understanding complicated ideas like ‘at the same
time’. She might start asking questions if she doesn’t understand an instruction.
Your child will start to understand figures of speech like ‘You’re pulling my leg’ and ‘He’s a couch potato’.
And your child will follow directions with more than two steps, even
if the situation is a new one. For example, ‘Give your ticket to the
man over there, and he’ll tear it, and then we can go to the movie’. But your child might do what he hears first and ignore words that tell him the order he should do things in. For example, he might ignore the word ‘before’ in the sentence ‘Before
we go into the movies, give your ticket to the man’.
Pronunciation in language development
By the age of 4½ years, almost every word your child says can
be understood by strangers.
She might still have difficulty using some speech sounds – for example, saying ‘fing’ for ‘thing,’ ‘den’ for ‘then’ or ‘wing’ for ‘ring’. She might also occasionally still mispronounce some complex words like ‘ambulance’ and ‘spaghetti’, by missing sounds (‘amblance’).
Developing conversation and storytelling
Your child will continue to improve his storytelling, although he might
still give too much or not enough information. He might also have
trouble telling things in order and making it clear who’s being spoken
about. His story endings might not make sense or might seem sudden.
But your child will have more appreciation of other people’s perspectives, so she
might add more useful background information in conversation. For
example, ‘I went to Max’s and we had cake and Max is from my
Your child will be getting better at taking turns in conversations with a group of people. And he’ll start talking at the right volume for the situation. He might make requests more politely, using words like ‘can’, ‘would’ and ‘could’. His requests might also be less direct and obvious. For example, he might say, ‘That smells good!’ when he wants something.
And your child will begin to use language to tease and tell jokes.
Children grow and develop at different rates. The information in this article is offered as a guide only. If you’re at all concerned about your child’s language development, speak with your GP, child and family health nurse or other health professional. If your health professional doesn’t have concerns about your child, but you still do, it’s OK to get another opinion.